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Table I.

Expression and function of TLRs and TLR-associated molecules by the intestinal innate immune systema

TLRsTLR Expression in Human Intestine (in vivo or primary cells)
Large intestineSmall intestine
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) + RNA (88 ) 
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) +* Ileum protein (89 ), RNA functional (6 ) 
+ Protein (89 ) RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Protein (89 ) 
4 (MD2) + RNA (5 ), protein (89 ), RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Protein (89 ) 
+ Protein (89 ), RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Ileum protein (89 ) 
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) ND 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + RNA (90 ) 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) −RNA (90 ) 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Ileum protein (31 ) 
10 Not expressed (91 ) ND 
TLRsTLR Expression in Human Intestine (in vivo or primary cells)
Large intestineSmall intestine
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) + RNA (88 ) 
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) +* Ileum protein (89 ), RNA functional (6 ) 
+ Protein (89 ) RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Protein (89 ) 
4 (MD2) + RNA (5 ), protein (89 ), RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Protein (89 ) 
+ Protein (89 ), RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Ileum protein (89 ) 
+ RNA (8 9 ) (function unknown) ND 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + RNA (90 ) 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) −RNA (90 ) 
+ RNA (9 ) (function unknown) + Ileum protein (31 ) 
10 Not expressed (91 ) ND 
a

In most cases, expression of specific TLRs and signaling molecules have been assessed but the function in vivo has not been ascertained. +, TLR has been shown to be expressed. We have indicated whether expression is positive at the RNA, protein level, or both. An asterisk (*) denotes that protein and RNA are expressed, and the receptor has been shown to be functional in response to the appropriate ligand.

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