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Table I.

Important, unresolved areas of hydatid immunology that may inform improved vaccine design

Required Tasks
Precise identification of the Ig isotypes involved in protective immunity 
 
Define the role of T cells as effectors of protective immunity and their regulation 
 
Unravel the relationship between T cell and B cell responses in protective immunity 
 
Characterize memory B and T cell recognition of protective Ags, including the EG95 vaccine 
 
Determine the role(s) of Ab-dependent cell-mediated immune effector mechanisms such as the involvement of neutrophils and the eosinophil/IgE/mast cell axis and neutrophils with Ab in the killing of the infective larval stage (the oncosphere) contained within the egg 
 
Evaluate cellular inflammatory responses/cell-mediated immunity, the generation of associated cytokine/chemokines, and the role of regulatory T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, fibrocytes, and NK cells in the early stages of infection 
 
Determine the involvement of Ab-dependent, complement-mediated lysis (by the classical or alternative pathway) and the role of neutrophils in the immune killing of oncospheres in vivo 
Required Tasks
Precise identification of the Ig isotypes involved in protective immunity 
 
Define the role of T cells as effectors of protective immunity and their regulation 
 
Unravel the relationship between T cell and B cell responses in protective immunity 
 
Characterize memory B and T cell recognition of protective Ags, including the EG95 vaccine 
 
Determine the role(s) of Ab-dependent cell-mediated immune effector mechanisms such as the involvement of neutrophils and the eosinophil/IgE/mast cell axis and neutrophils with Ab in the killing of the infective larval stage (the oncosphere) contained within the egg 
 
Evaluate cellular inflammatory responses/cell-mediated immunity, the generation of associated cytokine/chemokines, and the role of regulatory T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils, fibrocytes, and NK cells in the early stages of infection 
 
Determine the involvement of Ab-dependent, complement-mediated lysis (by the classical or alternative pathway) and the role of neutrophils in the immune killing of oncospheres in vivo 
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